The Comprehensive Guide to Propagating Peonies: From Division to Seeds

The Comprehensive Guide to Propagating Peonies: From Division to Seeds

How to Propagate Peonies


Peonies, with their lush, full blooms and fragrant scent, are a favorite in many gardens. These perennials that come back year after year are known for their hardiness and longevity. Propagating peonies, whether it's by division or from seeds, allows you to spread the beauty of these plants throughout your garden or share them with others. This article will guide you through the process of propagating peonies, ensuring you can enjoy their beauty for years to come.

Understanding Peonies

Peonies have a rich history, with their use dating back to over 2000 years ago in China and Greece for their medicinal properties. Today, they are cherished for their ornamental value in gardens worldwide. There are three main types of peonies: Herbaceous, Tree, and Itoh (a hybrid of the first two).

Herbaceous peonies are the most common, dying back to the ground in winter and re-emerging in spring. Tree peonies, contrary to their name, are actually shrubs. They lose their leaves in winter but the woody stem remains. Itoh peonies are a hybrid variety that combines the best traits of the other two types.

Peonies thrive in temperate climates and are hardy in USDA zones 3 through 8. They prefer full sun and well-draining soil. Once established, peonies are relatively low maintenance and can live for over 50 years, making them a long-lasting addition to any garden.

For more detailed information about the different types of peonies, you can visit the American Peony Society.

Propagation Methods for Peonies

Peonies can be propagated in a few different ways, but the most common methods are by division and from seeds.

Propagation by Division

Division is the quickest and most reliable method of peony propagation, and it's best done in the fall. Here are the steps:

  1. Cut back the peony stems to ground level.
  2. Carefully dig around and under the plant. Lift the plant out of the ground.
  3. Gently shake off the soil and rinse the roots so you can see the individual 'eyes' or buds.
  4. Using a sharp, clean knife, divide the root clump into sections. Each section should have at least three eyes and plenty of roots.
  5. Replant the divisions immediately at the same depth they were originally growing.

Propagation from Seeds

Propagation from seeds is a longer process but can be rewarding. Here's how to do it:

  1. Collect seeds from a mature peony plant after the seed pod has dried and opened.
  2. Place the seeds in a container of water. Discard any seeds that float as they are not viable.
  3. Stratify the seeds by placing them in a bag of moist peat moss or vermiculite and storing them in the refrigerator for about three months.
  4. After stratification, plant the seeds in pots filled with a well-draining soil mix. Place the pots in a cold frame or unheated greenhouse until the seeds germinate.

For a more in-depth guide on peony propagation, the Royal Horticultural Society provides excellent resources.

Caring for Propagated Peonies

Once your peonies have been propagated, they will need some care to help them establish and thrive.

Location and Soil

Peonies prefer a sunny location with well-draining soil. They can tolerate some shade, but too much can lead to fewer flowers. The soil should be rich in organic matter. If your soil is heavy clay or sandy, amend it with compost or well-rotted manure to improve its texture and fertility.


Peonies need regular watering, especially during dry spells. However, avoid overwatering as this can lead to root rot. The soil should be kept moist, but not waterlogged.


In the spring, apply a balanced granular or slow-release fertilizer around the base of the plant. Avoid high-nitrogen fertilizers as they can lead to lush foliage at the expense of blooms.


Peonies don't require much pruning. However, you should remove spent flowers and cut back the foliage to ground level in the fall to prevent disease.

Winter Care

In colder regions, apply a layer of mulch around the base of the plant in late fall to protect the roots from freezing temperatures. Remove the mulch in early spring before new growth starts.

Common Problems and Solutions

While peonies are generally hardy and low-maintenance, they can occasionally suffer from a few common problems.

Diseases and Pests

Peonies can be affected by fungal diseases such as botrytis blight and powdery mildew. These can be prevented by ensuring good air circulation around the plants and avoiding overhead watering. If a plant is affected, remove and dispose of the infected parts and consider applying a fungicide.

Common pests include thrips and scale. Thrips can cause discolored and distorted flowers, while scale insects can weaken the plant. Both can be treated with a suitable insecticide.

Prevention and Treatment

Good cultural practices are the best prevention against most peony problems. This includes proper spacing, watering, and sanitation practices such as removing and disposing of diseased plant material.

If problems do occur, early detection and treatment are key. Use appropriate fungicides or insecticides as needed, and always follow the manufacturer's instructions.

For more tips on dealing with common peony diseases and pests, check out this helpful article on Gardener's Path.


Here are some frequently asked questions about propagating peonies:

  1. Can you grow a peony from a cutting? While it's possible to grow a peony from a stem cutting, it's not the most reliable method. Peonies propagated from cuttings may not develop the strong root system they need to thrive.

  2. What are the propagation methods of peonies? The most common methods of propagating peonies are by division and from seeds. Division is quicker and more reliable, while growing from seeds is a longer process but can be rewarding.

  3. How do you collect peony seeds? Peony seeds can be collected from a mature plant after the seed pod has dried and opened. The seeds should be cleaned and stratified before planting.

  4. When should you divide peonies? Peonies should be divided in the fall, after the foliage has died back. This gives the new plants a chance to establish before winter.


Peonies are a beautiful addition to any garden, and propagating your own peonies can be a rewarding experience. Whether you choose to propagate by division or from seeds, with a little patience and care, you can enjoy the beauty of these blooms for many years. Remember, the key to successful propagation is understanding the needs of the plant and providing the right conditions. Happy gardening!

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